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1 Ethics in International Business
Chapter Four Ethics in International Business

2 Introduction Business ethics are the accepted principles of right or wrong governing the conduct of business people An ethical strategy is a strategy or course of action that does not violate these accepted principles

3 Ethical Issues in International Business
Many of the ethical issues and dilemmas in international business are rooted in the fact that political systems, law, economic development, and culture vary significantly from nation to nation In the international business setting, the most common ethical issues involve Employment practices Human rights Environmental regulations Corruption Moral obligation of multinational corporations

4 Employment Practices Ethical issues associated with employment practices abroad include When work conditions in a host nation are clearly inferior to those in a multinational’s home nation, what standards should be applied? While few would suggest that pay and work conditions should be the same across nations, how much divergence is acceptable?

5 Human Rights Questions of human rights can arise in international business because basic human rights still are not respected in many nations Rights that we take for granted in developed nations, such as freedom of association, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of movement, and freedom from political repression are by no means universally accepted The question that must be asked of firms operating internationally is: ‘What is the responsibility of a foreign multinational when operating in a country where basic human rights are trampled on?’

6 Environmental Pollution
Ethical issues arise when environmental regulations in host nations are far inferior to those in the home nation Developing nations often lack environmental regulations, and according to critics, the result can be higher levels of pollution from the operations of multinationals than would be allowed at home Environmental questions take on added importance because some parts of the environment are a public good that no one owns, but anyone can despoil The tragedy of the commons occurs when a resource held in common by all, but owned by no one, is overused by individuals, resulting in its degradation

7 Corruption Corruption has been a problem in almost every society in history, and it continues to be one today International businesses can, and have, gained economic advantages by making payments to government officials The United States passed the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act to fight corruption Outlawed the paying of bribes to foreign government officials to gain business In 1997, the trade and finance ministers from the member states of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) followed the U.S. lead and adopted the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions Obliges member states to make the bribery of foreign public officials a criminal offense

8 Moral Obligations Multinational corporations have power that comes from their control over resources and their ability to move production from country to country Moral philosophers argue that with power comes the social responsibility for corporations to give something back to the societies that enable them to prosper and grow Social responsibility refers to the idea that businesspeople should consider the social consequences of economic actions when making business decisions Advocates of this approach argue that businesses need to recognize their noblesse oblige (benevolent behavior that is the responsibility of successful enterprises) Power itself is morally neutral. It is how power is used that matters. It can be used in a positive way to increase social welfare, which is ethical, or it can be used in a manner that is ethically and morally suspect. Consider the case of News Corporation, one of the largest media conglomerates in the world, which is profiled in the accompanying Management Focus. The power of media companies derives from their ability to shape public perceptions by the material they choose to publish. News Corporation founder and CEO Rupert Murdoch has long considered China to be one of the most promising media markets in the world and has sought permission to expand News Corporation’s operations in China, particularly the satellite broadcasting operations of Star TV. Some critics believe that Murdoch used the power of News Corporation in an unethical way to attain this objective. Some multinationals have acknowledged a moral obligation to use their power to enhance social welfare in the communities where they do business. BP, one of the world’s largest oil companies, has made it part of the company policy to undertake “social investments” in the countries where it does business.

9 Ethical Dilemmas Managers must confront very real ethical dilemmas
The ethical obligations of a multinational corporation toward employment conditions, human rights, corruption, environmental pollution, and the use of power are not always clear cut Ethical dilemmas are situations in which none of the available alternatives seems ethically acceptable

10 The Roots of Unethical Behavior
Why do managers behave in a manner that is unethical? Business ethics are not divorced from personal ethics Businesspeople sometimes do not realize they are behaving unethical because they fail to ask if the decision is ethical The climate in some businesses does not encourage people to think through the ethical consequences of business decisions Pressure from the parent company to meet unrealistic performance goals that can be attained only by cutting corners or acting in an unethical manner Leaders help to establish the culture of an organization and they set the example that others follow

11 The Roots of Unethical Behavior
Figure 4.1 – Determinants of Ethical Behavior, p. 135

12 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Straw Man
Straw man approaches to business ethics are raised by business ethics scholars primarily to demonstrate that they offer inappropriate guidelines for ethical decision making in a multinational enterprise The Friedman Doctrine states that the only social responsibility of business is to increase profits, so long as the company stays within the rules of law

13 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Straw Man
Cultural Relativism believes that ethics are nothing more than the reflection of a culture (‘When in Rome, do as the Romans’) The Righteous Moralist claims that a multinational’s home-country standards of ethics are the appropriate ones in all countries The Naïve Immoralist asserts that if a manager sees that firms from other nations are not following ethical norms in a host country then they should not either

14 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics
Utilitarian approaches to ethics hold that the moral worth of actions or practices is determined by their consequences An action is judged to be desirable if it leads to the best possible balance of good consequences over bad consequences One problem with utilitarianism is in measuring the benefits, costs, and risks of an action The second problem related to utilitarianism is that it does not consider justice, so the minority will always be at a disadvantage Most moral philosophers see value in utilitarian and Kantian approaches to business ethics

15 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Utilitarian and Kantian Ethics
Kantian ethics hold that people should be treated as ends and never purely as means to the ends of others People are not instruments like a machine People have dignity and need to be respected Kantian ethics are viewed as incomplete

16 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Rights
Rights theories recognize that human beings have fundamental rights and privileges which transcend national boundaries and cultures Rights establish a minimum level of morally acceptable behavior Moral theorists argue that fundamental human rights form the basis for the moral compass that managers should navigate by when making decisions which have an ethical component

17 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Rights
The notion that there are fundamental rights that transcend national borders and cultures was the underlying motivation for the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act toward one another in a spirit of brotherhood Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work, and to protection against unemployment

18 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Rights
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work Everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests

19 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Justice
Justice theories focus on the attainment of a just distribution of economic goods and services A just distribution is one that is considered fair and equitable There is no one theory of justice Several theories of justice conflict with each other in important ways Valid principles of justice are those with which all persons would agree if they could freely and impartially consider the situation Impartiality is guaranteed by a conceptual device called the veil of ignorance Under the veil of ignorance, everyone is imagined to be ignorant of all of his or her particular characteristics race, sex, intelligence, nationality, family background, and special talents

20 Philosophical Approaches to Ethics: Justice
Rawls argues that under the veil of ignorance people would unanimously agree on two fundamental principles of justice Each person be permitted the maximum amount of basic liberty compatible with a similar liberty for others Once equal basic liberty is assured, inequality in basic social goods is to be allowed only if such inequalities benefit everyone Difference principle states that inequalities are justified if they benefit the position of the least-advantaged person Moral philosophers have a problem with Rawls’ concept of the veil of ignorance because decisions generally include some of the factors

21 Ethical Decision Making
Five things that an international business and its managers can do to make sure ethical issues are considered Favor hiring and promoting people with a well-grounded sense of personal ethics Build an organizational culture that places a high value on ethical behavior Make sure that leaders within the business not only articulate the rhetoric of ethical behavior, but also act in a manner that is consistent with that rhetoric Implement decision-making processes that require people to consider the ethical dimension of business decisions Develop moral courage

22 Hiring Practices: A Job Seeker’s Audit
Table 4.1 – A Job Seeker’s Audit, p. 145

23 Organization Culture and Leadership
To foster ethical behavior, businesses need to build an organization culture that values ethical behavior Three things that are need to build an ethical culture Businesses must explicitly articulate values that emphasize ethical behavior in a code of ethics Leaders in the business must give life and meaning to those words by repeatedly emphasizing their importance and then acting on them Incentive and benefit systems, including promotions, must reward people who engage in ethical behavior and sanction those who do not

24 Decision-Making Process
According to experts, a decision is acceptable on ethical grounds if a businessperson can answer yes to each of these questions: Does my decision fall within the accepted values or standards that typically apply in the organizational environment (as articulated in a code of ethics or some other corporate statement)? Am I willing to see the decision communicated to all stakeholders affected by it — for example, by having it reported in newspapers or on television? Would the people with whom I have a significant personal relationship, such as family members, friends, or even managers in other businesses, approve of the decision?

25 Decision-Making Process
Five-step process to think through ethical problems Businesspeople should identify which stakeholders a decision would affect and in what ways Stakeholders are individuals or groups that have an interest, claim, or stake in the company Judge the ethics of the proposed strategic decision, given the information gained in Step 1 Managers must establish moral intent Implement the ethical behavior Review the decision to make sure it was consistent with ethical principles

26 Moral Courage Moral courage enables managers to walk away from a decision that is profitable, but unethical Moral courage gives an employee the strength to say no to a superior who instructs her to pursue actions that are unethical Moral courage gives employees the integrity to go public to the media and blow the whistle on persistent unethical behavior in a company Moral courage does not come easy and employees have lost their jobs when acting on this courage Companies can strengthen the moral courage of employees by committing themselves to not retaliate against employees who exercise moral courage, say no to superiors, or otherwise complain about unethical actions. For example, consider the following extract from Unilever’s code of ethics: Any breaches of the Code must be reported in accordance with the procedures specified by the Joint Secretaries. The Board of Unilever will not criticize management for any loss of business resulting from adherence to these principles and other mandatory policies and instructions. The Board of Unilever expects employees to bring to their attention, or to that of senior management, any breach or suspected breach of these principles. Provision has been made for employees to be able to report in confidence and no employee will suffer as a consequence of doing so.

27 Looking Ahead International Trade Theory Overview of Trade Theory
Mercantilism Absolute Advantage Comparative Advantage Heckscher-Ohlin Theory The Product Life-Cycle Theory New Trade Theory National Competitive Advantage: Porter’s Diamond

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